История Сибири - 19. Опять кыргызы

yaroslavz аватар

В работе History of Siberia (London, 2006) наиболее важным из домонгольских государств считается Енисейский каганат, о котором там имеется следующая информация(pp. 40-43):

The Turkic, and later, the east Turkic Kaghanates significantly influenced
the development of the south Siberian peoples. In the sixth and seventh
centuries Turkic material culture spread over almost all southern Siberia,
bringing more advanced weapons, horse harnesses, etc. For instance, the Turkic
people were the first to start using stirrups, which made horse riding – this
important part of nomadic cattle breeders’ life – considerably easier. During
the ancient Turks’ dominion over southern Siberia the Turkic language and
writing spread and separate Turkic speaking peoples began to emerge (the
Altaians, Shor, Tuvinians, Kirghiz, Kurikan and others).
Finally, the first independent Siberian state, the Kirghiz Kaghanate, arose
under the influence of the ancient Turks. It was set up by the Yenisei Kirghiz
after the east Turkic Kaghanate broke up in the middle of the eighth century.4
The Yenisei Kirghiz5 emerged from the Gyangun Mongoloid nomadic tribes,
who had been driven from central Asia to the Upper Yenisei by the Huns in
the first century BCE, merging with the Dinlin, Europeoid tribes of cattle
breeders and farmers. Anthropologically, the Kirghiz were of Mongoloid physical
type but, by some accounts, they had red hair, rosy complexions and blue
eyes. They lived along the Yenisei River from the Saian Mountains to presentday
Krasnoiarsk.
The Yenisei Kirghiz state structure was similar to that of the Turkic
Kaghanate, with the Kaghan, Begs, rank and file soldiers (Baturs and Oglans)
and Tarkhans. They also used the ancient Turkic written language.
The economy of the Yenisei Kirghiz was based on nomadic cattle breeding.
However, it was not quite typical for nomads. Arable farming, which had
earlier fallen into decline in southern Siberia, experienced a revival in the
Kirghiz Kaghanate, adopting more advanced techniques: instead of using
mattocks they started to employ ploughs. Also, they used irrigation in the dry
areas of the Minusinsk Basin. Their chief grain crops were barley, millet, wheat
and hemp. Iron sickles were used for reaping. According to Chinese chroniclers,
the Yenisei Kirghiz land cultivation and crop growing skills were quite
advanced.
The Kirghiz Khaganate had well-developed crafts; their craftsmen made
various types of household utensils, work tools and ornaments. Pottery and
jewellery-making were particularly prominent. The egg-shaped ‘Kirghiz vase’,
for instance, was widely known in central Asia and southern Siberia.
The Kirghiz Kaghanate maintained regular trade links with the Arabs,
Chinese, Tibetans, Uighurs and many Siberian peoples. Camel caravans plied
between central Asia and the Kaghanate on a regular basis. The trade was
mostly in the form of barter and covered such expensive items as could be
afforded only by people of high rank. The Kirghiz bought silk fabrics, bronze
mirrors, articles made of lacquered wood, horse harnesses (especially richly
inlaid examples) and sold items made of antlers and metal, as well as the furs
which they obtained from the peoples of northern Siberia in exchange for metal
objects.
Kirghiz society practised customs and traditions common among nomads of
the day. For instance, bridegrooms paid kalym for their wives-to-be (i.e. the
bridegroom had to pay money or other material assets to the girl’s parents).
Usually kalym took the form of a number of cattle. After their wedding women
had their necks tattooed, whereas men were tattooed on their faces. On their
household farms the Kirghiz used slave labour on a limited scale. These slaves
were captured in battle. Defaulting debtors were also turned into slaves. Their
favorite pastimes included wrestling, camel and horse racing. Like all Siberian
peoples, the Kirghiz practised Shamanism.
As was typical of nomads of their time, the Yenisei Kirghiz were good
warriors. They built an army of almost 80,000. Its backbone was the cavalry.
With this army they subdued many local tribes and subjected them to tribute.
The northern tribes paid it in the form of furs; the southern in the form of
cattle. The Kirghiz Kaghanate covered a vast area from west of Lake Baikal
to the Altai.
In 840 they defeated the central Asian Uighur tribes and their Kaghanate
and established their dominion over the territory of present-day Mongolia. In
the tenth century the Kirghiz were driven from Mongolia back to the Yenisei.
However, some of the Yenisei Kirghiz did not go back there, but went to settle
in the foothills of the Tian-Shan in the territory of present-day Kyrgyzstan.
The Yenisei Kirghiz state existed until the early thirteenth century when it
was destroyed by the Mongol conquerors.

Там же выше упоминается, что знаменитые тюркские руны были в ходу в Енисейском каганате вплоть до его гибели. Несмотря на расхожее представление о том, что кыргызы как раз истребили манихеев, когда уничтожили манихейский Уйгурский каганат, имеются исследования Кызласова о том, что манихейство у кыргызов по-прежнему процветало и было доминирующей религией, то есть сохранялось в Сибири по крайней мере до монгол.