История Сибири - 37. Русские завоевания (1585-1629)

yaroslavz аватар

"The conquest of Siberia was in many ways similar to the conquest of Mexico and Peru: a handful of people, shooting fire, overwhelmed thousands wielding arrows and spears".
(N.M. Karamzin, Russian historian)

О раннем периоде конкисты (до основания Красноярска) по вике:

В 1582 году, 26 октября Ермак овладел Кашлыком и начал присоединение Сибирского ханства к России. Потерпев поражение от казаков, Кучум откочевал на юг и продолжал оказывать сопротивление русским завоевателям до 1598 года. 20 апреля 1598 г. он был разбит тарским воеводой Андреем Воейковым на берегу р. Обь и бежал в Ногайскую Орду, где был убит. Вскоре был убит и сам Ермак.Последним ханом был Али, сын Кучума.

На рубеже XVI и XVII веков на территории Сибирского ханства поселенцами из России были основаны города Тюмень, Тобольск, Берёзов, Сургут, Тара, Обдорск (Салехард). В 1601 г. на реке Таз, впадающей в Обскую губу, был основан город Мангазея. Тем самым открылся морской путь в Западную Сибирь (Мангазейский Морской Ход). С основанием острога Нарым была покорена Пегая Орда на востоке от Сибирского ханства.

В царствование Михаила Фёдоровича, первого царя из династии Романовых, казаки и поселенцы осваивают Восточную Сибирь. В течение первых 18 лет XVII века совершается переход русских на реку Енисей. Основываются города Томск (1604 г.), Красноярск (1628 г.) и др.

Более подробно по книге History of Siberia:

Following Yermak’s death the remaining Russian troops (about 150 men in all) under the command of Ivan Glukhov and Cossack Ataman Matvei Meshcheriak abandoned Kashlyk and began to retreat towards the Urals. Soon they met with another Russian party headed by Military Governor Ivan Mansurov, joined up with them and returned to the Irtysh River. At its confluence with the River Ob they built a small fortress, Obskii gorodok, where they intended to spend the winter. This fortress existed until 1594.
The Russians’ retreat led to a resurgence of old internicine struggles among the Tatars. Kashlyk was occupied by the troops of Seidiak, a Taibugin, who declared himself khan of the now defunct Siberian Khanate and began to fight Kuchum.

After its military setbacks of 1585 the Russian government changed its
tactics for the subjugation of Siberia. They decided to establish permanent
fortified outposts (ostrogs) and to subject the Siberian population to tribute
(yasak) on a regular basis.
In the summer of 1586 a force of 300 streltsi (Russian professional soldiers)
came to Siberia under the command of military governor Vasilii Sukin and
were joined by the troops of Glukhov, Meshcheriak and Mansurov from Obskii
gorodok. In July, Sukin’s troops founded the ostrog of Tiumen on the site of
the Tatar town of Chimga-Tura. This became the first permanent Russian settlement
in Siberia.
In the spring of the following year, 1587, another force of streltsi (500 men)
under the command of military governor Daniil Chulkov arrived in Siberia.
They started from the Tiumen Ostrog, sailed down the Tura and Tobol rivers
and founded the ostrog of Tobolsk opposite the mouth of the Tobol on the
right hand bank2 of the Irtysh River. This ostrog became the main Russian
headquarters in Siberia.
With the Tobolsk and Tiumen ostrogs as their chief bases, the Russian
parties headed by Chulkov, Mansurov, Meshcheriak and other commanders
commenced a systematic advance on the Tatars with the result that Kashlyk
was destroyed and burned to the ground, Seidiak was taken captive and the
Tatars were defeated again. Only a few remaining scattered groups of
Kuchum’s men continued resisting. They raided the newly Russian territories
and tried to collect tribute from the Siberian peoples. In 1598, when the
Russians destroyed Kuchum’s headquarters, the Tatar resistance broke and
their organized struggle against the Russians ceased.
After Tobolsk had been founded and the Tatars had been finally defeated,
the exploration of Siberia began to proceed with rapidity. In 1593 the ostrogs
of Pelym and Beriozov were founded; others followed: in 1594 – Surgut; in
1598 – Verkhoturie and Narym; in 1601 – Mangazeia; and in 1604 – Tomsk.
Most west Siberian territory had been incorporated into Russia by the early
seventeenth century.
The Russians’ advance through Siberia continued for the whole of the
following century and was completed in the natural course of events when
they reached the Pacific coast.
The exploration of east Siberia and the Far East was carried out by parties
of explorers who were primarily looking for new sources of furs. The chief
result of their efforts was the annexation of Siberia to Russia.
The explorers carried resolutely on eastwards through the vastness of Siberia,
braving the severe climate and total lack of roads, struggling through the impenetrable
taiga forest, marshes, mountains and tundra. In 1619 they founded the
ostrog of Yeniseisk which became a principal base for preparing expeditions
into the Siberian interior.