История Сибири - 51. Демография в 17 веке, структура фронтира

yaroslavz аватар

По книге History of Siberia

"The Russian population in Siberia fell into three social categories: ‘burden
bearing people’ (tiaglye liudi), ‘itinerant people’ (guliashchie liudi) and ‘service
men’ (sluzhilye liudi).
The burden bearing group included those who had to bear the ‘burden’
(tiaglo): a combination of government taxes and work and service duties that
these people had to perform for the government.
The itinerant group included those who came to Siberia of their own volition
(including runaways) and who had no special skills and made their livings
doing whatever jobs they could get. The government tried to deal with these
people by either getting them into ‘service’ or having them join the burden
bearing group. The itinerants represented a recruitment source for all the population
divisions.
The serving men included all those who were in the service of the government.
Their responsibilities were not strictly defined. The most important of
them was military service and tribute collection. Besides this, they guarded
trade routes, caravans, warehouses, government institutions and groups of
exiles. When necessary, they were to perform various types of work and services
such as construction, shipbuilding, etc. For their work, the rank and file
members of this group were paid wages in the form of money (4–8 roubles
per year), grain in the form of 30–50 pudy of oats or rye per year, and salt
(one to two pudy of salt annually).2 The wages were paid very irregularly.
Higher ranking members of this group were paid 10–12 roubles, 60–80 pudy
of grain and three pudy of salt. The serving men made up the majority of the
population in Siberian towns and ostrogs in the seventeenth century.
By the end of the seventeenth century the main Russian population group
in Siberia was peasants who constituted over 50 per cent of its population.
The Siberian peasants were subdivided into ‘black plough’ (chernososhnye)
peasants and ‘monastery’ (monastyrskie) peasants. The black plough peasants
(87 per cent of all agricultural workers) enjoyed personal freedom and bore
their ‘burden’ in the interests of the government. They were divided into arable
peasants and tax paying peasants in a ratio of 4:1. The arable peasants worked
the so-called ‘Tsar’s Ten’ (gosudareva desiatina) and the tax paying peasants
paid an annual rent in cash or in kind – 40 Altyns (1 rouble and 20 kopecks)
or 20 chetverts3 of rye and 20 chetverts of oats per male peasant. Monastery
peasants, as the name implies, settled on lands which belonged to monasteries
and were dependent on them. Apart from their principal occupation, all Siberian
peasants had various work duties to perform: they had to participate in government
construction projects, help with the transportation of cargoes, provide
accommodation for serving men, etc.
In the seventeenth century the more urbanized ‘craftsmen and workmen’
(posadskoe naselenie) population group in Siberia was also predominantly
involved in farming, but it also had to perform its craftsmen and workmen
duties which were not at all clearly defined. This group just had to do whatever
work the military governor deemed necessary, be it construction, repair,
the manufacture of goods and products, transportation, etc.
The group called ‘hunters’ (promyshlenniki) consisted of those who trapped
animals to obtain furs. It had to pay tax to the government, the value of which
varied greatly. This population group had shrunk considerably by the end of
the seventeenth century as a result of a decline in sable hunting. Some of them
went back to Russia; others stayed in Siberia and joined the ranks of peasants,
craftsmen or serving men.
The majority of people in the category of serving men were Cossacks, who
were subdivided into foot Cossacks (peshie – the majority) and mounted
Cossacks (konnye). The Siberian Cossacks were recruited from different population
groups. All foreign prisoners of war were enlisted as Cossacks. There
were not many streltsi in Siberia and by the end of the seventeenth century
they were all sent back to Russia. A special population group among the serving
men was represented by ‘Boiar sons’ who were the top of the hierarchy in this
social group. A person was granted the title Boiar son for some special service
regardless of their position. They held responsible jobs as government officials,
garrison commanders and sometimes as military governors. Besides this
they were given important missions to carry out (the command of military
campaigns and security escorts, reconnaissance trips to explore new lands, diplomatic
functions, etc.). Cossack atamany and streltsi commanders (colonels)
were appointed from among this social group. From 1684 the Boiar sons were
granted the aristocratic title of ‘Siberian noblemen’ (sibirskie dvoriane).
Farming became a dominant occupation among the Russian population in
Siberia. The subjugation and exploration of Siberia would have been impossible
without farming because its products constituted the staple diet of the
Russians (a lack of these products had often resulted in famine during the
initial stage of exploration).
During the seventeenth century the Siberia Office took steps to develop
farming in Siberia which included:
• nationalization of all land in Siberia;
• resettlement of peasants to Siberia;
• allocation of the ‘Tsar’s desiatina’; and
• benefits (including tax breaks) for peasants (lgoty).
Land was provided to the peasants based on a 4:1 ratio. The peasants had
to give the government the products harvested from one out of every four
desiatinas4 free of charge.
Working the ‘Tsar’s desiatina’ was similar to the forced labour serfs in
European Russia had to put in on their landowners’ fields. Peasants from areas
difficult to reach paid the annual tax in kind or money, as mentioned above.
The peasants were given food aid and loans of money to help them settle in
a new place. The size of the loans varied – from 10 roubles in Verkhoturie
county to 30 roubles in the Lena Territory.
Russian peasants brought their traditional crops and techniques with them.
The chief crop was rye. They also grew barley, wheat, peas, buckwheat, millet,
and vegetables such as cabbages, turnips, carrots, onions, garlic, etc. Russian
peasants practised plough-based farming. In the first decades of Russian domination
in Siberia the fallow cultivation (perelozhnaia) system was used; later
the farmers gradually changed over to three-field crop rotation.
A characteristic feature of Russian farming in Siberia was that it spread
along the main route from west to east through the river valleys: Tura, Tobol,
Irtysh, Ob, Ket, Yenisei, Angara, Ilim, Lena, Shilka, Argun and Amur.
In spite of the formidable challenges facing farmers, agricultural development
made it possible for the Siberian Office to gradually reduce the quantity
of food supplies imported into Siberia. As time went on Siberia became selfreliant
in terms of food, thus establishing itself on a par with European Russia.
The second most important occupation of the Russians in Siberia consisted
of small industries (promysly) involving the harvesting of natural products;
some of the more prominent of these included fur hunting, fishing and salt
production. The Russians introduced their skills and techniques into these occupations
as well. For example, in hunting, they began to use dogs and traps,
and began to hunt in groups (arteli).5 This enabled them to harvest more furs.
In the seventeenth century the Russians’ share in the local fur harvest accounted
for about 60 per cent. In fishing they used long sweep-nets (up to 100 sazheni6
long). For salt production they began to build salt works.
The Russians’ hunting activities were characterized by irresponsible attitudes.
Thus, the sable was almost wiped out during the seventeenth century,
and in 1684 the Siberia Office had to ban sable hunting in the Yeniseisk and
Lensk territories.
The third important occupation of the Russians was construction. A good
deal of building was necessary in Siberia in the late sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries. The principal construction material was timber. They used it to build
ostrogs, administrative and industrial buildings, warehouses, churches, houses
and boats which at that time were the main means of travel.7 The main type
of Russian dwelling was the izba (a strong single storey wooden house) which
was built of round logs (35–40 or more centimetres in diameter) as opposed
to tepees, yurts and dugouts. Izba windows were covered with mica. Inside
these cottages they built Russian stoves in which they burned firewood ‘white’
style (i.e. when smoke escapes through a chimney as opposed to to ‘black’
style when it escapes through a hole in the roof) and laid floorboards. Next to
their izbas the Russians always built their steam bath houses (the bania – which
was hitherto unknown to the Siberian population).
In the late seventeenth century they started to use stone for construction in
Siberia. The Cathedral of St Sophia, erected in Tobolsk in 1686, was the first
stone building.
Another significant activity among the Russian population was trade and
crafts. Trade was important in that it kept Siberia supplied with what its people
needed. Initially all items for daily use and work tools were imported from
Russia: cloths, shoes, tableware, firearms, tools, agricultural utensils, etc.
In 1597 the government imposed a customs duty on imports to Siberia to
the amount of 10 per cent of their value for the Russians and 5 per cent for
Bukharan merchants and established customs posts (tamozhni) on Siberia’s
borders and between its territories. So, when goods crossed from one territory
to another within Siberia, the duty had to be paid as well. The customs were
headed by heads of customs (tamozhennye golova) appointed by the military
governors. Heads of customs inspected goods, priced them and assessed the
customs duty. The customs enabled the state to control trade, control being
extremely important because the government had imposed a monopoly on trade
in furs. But on the other hand the customs impeded trade. In 1687 the Siberia
Office abolished the internal customs and duties between the territories. Only
the customs on the borders remained in Verkhoturie (on the border with Russia
at the Urals watershed), in Tobolsk (for trade with central Asia), in Irkutsk
(for trade with Mongolia) and in Nerchinsk (for trade with China)".

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